golang中应用echo框架中的HTTP

HTTP2 Server Push的研究

2017/01/05 · 基本功技巧 ·
HTTP/2

原稿出处:
AlloyTeam   

本文首发地址为-iOS HTTP/贰 Server Push 探寻 |
李剑飞的博客

生命不息,继续 go go go !!!

一,HTTP2的新特点。

关于HTTP二的新特征,读着能够参照小编以前的篇章,那里就不在多说了,本篇文章首要讲一下server
push那几个个性。

HTTP,HTTP二.0,SPDY,HTTPS你应该明了的一对事

 


继续echo web框架,前天搞一下http2。

2,Server Push是什么。

轻巧易行来讲正是当用户的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将一些能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去请求那一个财富时就一直从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,进步了速率。举三个事例正是:

比方二个页面有三个财富文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器请求index.html的时候,服务器不仅再次来到index.html的始末,同时将index.css和index.js的内容push给浏览器,当浏览器下次恳请这二三个文本时就能够一向从缓存中读取了。

图片 1

HTTP2

What is HTTP/2?
HTTP/2 is a replacement for how HTTP is expressed “on the wire.” It is
not a ground-up rewrite of the protocol; HTTP methods, status codes and
semantics are the same, and it should be possible to use the same APIs
as HTTP/1.x (possibly with some small additions) to represent the
protocol.

The focus of the protocol is on performance; specifically, end-user
perceived latency, network and server resource usage. One major goal is
to allow the use of a single connection from browsers to a Web site.

新的二进制格式(Binary Format)
HTTP一.x的分析是依照文本。基于文本协议的格式解析存在后天缺陷,文本的表现方式有三种性,要马到功成健壮性思量的景观必然诸多,二进制则分裂,只认0和一的组合。基于那种设想HTTP二.0的情商分析决定采纳贰进制格式,达成方便且健壮。

多路复用(MultiPlexing)
即三番五次共享,即每3个request都是是用作连接共享机制的。一个request对应1个id,那样2个老是上得以有五个request,每一种连接的request能够随意的混合在同步,接收方能够依附request的
id将request再归属到个别区别的服务端请求里面。多路复用原理图:

header压缩
HTTP二.0利用encoder来压缩须求传输的header大小,通信双方分别cache一份header
田野s表,既制止了再一次header的传输,又减小了亟需传输的轻重缓急。

服务端推送(server push)
同SPDY一样,HTTP2.0也具有server push功能。

三,Server Push原理是怎么。

要想精晓server
push原理,首先要驾驭一些定义。大家清楚HTTP2传输的格式并不像HTTP1使用文本来传输,而是启用了贰进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧首要分为那二种档期的顺序:

  1. HEADE帕杰罗S
    frame(请求重返头帧):那种帧首要辅导的http请求头新闻,和HTTP一的header类似。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :那种帧存放真正的多寡content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE
    frame(推送帧):那种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来表示server
    push的帧,那种帧是贯彻server push的首要帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(撤除推送帧):那种帧表示请求关闭帧,简单讲正是当client不想接受一些能源照旧收受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
    frame一齐行使时表示拒绝大概关闭server push。

Note:HTTP贰.0休戚相关的帧其实包罗10种帧,就是因为尾巴部分数据格式的改变,才为HTTP二.0推动好些个的特点,帧的引进不仅有益压缩数量,也方便数据的安全性和可相信传输性。

摸底了相关的帧类型,下边便是现实server push的贯彻进程了:

  1. 由多路复用大家得以清楚HTTP第22中学对于同3个域名的伸手会使用一条tcp链接而用不一致的stream
    ID来分化各自的乞请。
  2. 当client使用stream
    一请求index.html时,server通常管理index.html的请求,并得以摸清index.html页面还将在会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
    frame给client告诉client笔者那边能够行使stream 2来推送index.js和stream
    叁来推送index.css能源。
  4. server使用stream 一通常的发送HEADESportageS frame和DATA
    frames将index.html的始末再次回到给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得知stream 二和stream
    三来收纳推送财富。
  6. server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADEOdysseyS frame和DATA
    frames将财富发送给client。
  7. client得到push的财富后会缓存起来当呼吁这一个能源时会从平昔从从缓存中读取。

下图表示了全套工艺流程:

图片 2

HTTP/2

变化证书

go run C:\go\src\crypto\tls\generate_cert.go --host localhost
2017/11/22 10:06:58 written cert.pem
2017/11/22 10 :06:58 written key.pem

4,Server Push怎么用。

既然server
push这么奇妙,那么大家什么样运用啊?怎么设置服务器push哪些文件呢?

先是并不是持有的服务器都支持server
push,nginx目前还不帮衬那天性情,可以在nginx的官方博客上获得认证,可是Apache和nodejs都早就支撑了server
push那一个特征,必要证多美滋(Dumex)些的是server
push这特特性是依赖浏览器和服务器的,所以浏览器并从未提供相应的js
api来让用户一向操作和决定push的内容,所以只可以是通过header新闻和server的配备来落成具体的push内容,本文首要以nodejs来验证实际怎么着利用server
push那1特征。

预备专门的职业:下载nodejs
http2协助,本地运营nodejs服务。

壹. 第壹大家选用nodejs搭建基本的server:

JavaScript

var http2 = require(‘http二’);   var url=require(‘url’); var
fs=require(‘fs’); var mine=require(‘./mine’).types; var
path=require(‘path’);   var server = http2.createServer({   key:
fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.key’),   cert:
fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.crt’) }, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;     var realPath =
path.join(“my”, pathname);    //那里安装本人的文件名称;       var
pushArray = [];     var ext = path.extname(realPath);     ext = ext ?
ext.slice(1) : ‘unknown’;     var contentType = mine[ext] ||
“text/plain”;       if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {  
        response.writeHead(200, {             ‘Content-Type’:
contentType         });  
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,’binary’));       } else
{       response.writeHead(404, {           ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
      });         response.write(“This request URL ” + pathname + ” was
not found on this server.”);       response.end();     }   });  
server.listen(443, function() {   console.log(‘listen on 443’); });

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var http2 = require(‘http2’);
 
var url=require(‘url’);
var fs=require(‘fs’);
var mine=require(‘./mine’).types;
var path=require(‘path’);
 
var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.key’),
  cert: fs.readFileSync(‘./zs/localhost.crt’)
}, function(request, response) {
    var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = path.join("my", pathname);    //这里设置自己的文件名称;
 
    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : ‘unknown’;
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";
 
    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {
 
        response.writeHead(200, {
            ‘Content-Type’: contentType
        });
 
        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,’binary’));
 
    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
      });
 
      response.write("This request URL " + pathname + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }
 
});
 
server.listen(443, function() {
  console.log(‘listen on 443’);
});

这几行代码就是轻巧搭建一个nodejs
http2服务,展开chrome,大家得以见见有着请求都走了http2,同时也得以作证多路复用的特征。

图片 3

此地须求留意几点:

  1. 始建http二的nodejs服务必须时依照https的,因为前些天主流的浏览器都要帮忙SSL/TLS的http二,证书和私钥能够本身通过OPENSSL生成。
  2. node http二的相干api和健康的node httpserver同样,可以平昔动用。

  3. 设置大家的server push:

JavaScript

var pushItem = response.push(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’, {        request:
{             accept: ‘*/\*’        },       response: {
            ‘content-type’: ‘text/css’      } });
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));

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var pushItem = response.push(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’, {
       request: {
            accept: ‘*/\*’
       },
      response: {
            ‘content-type’: ‘text/css’
     }
});
pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));

咱俩设置了bootstrap.min.css来经过server
push到大家的浏览器,我们能够在浏览器中查看:

图片 4

能够观察,运转server push的能源timelime相当的慢,大大加快了css的获取时间。

此处需要专注上边几点:

  1. 作者们调用response.push(),正是壹对1于server发起了PUSH_PROMISE
    frame来报告浏览器bootstrap.min.css将会由server push来赢得。
  2. response.push()再次回到的靶牛时多个平时的ServerResponse,end(),writeHeader()等方法都得以平常调用。
  3. 此间一旦针对某些能源调用response.push()即发起PUSH_PROMISE
    frame后,要搞好容错机制,因为浏览器在下次伏乞那几个能源时会且只会等待那几个server
    push回来的能源,那里要办好超时和容错即下边包车型地铁代码:
  4. JavaScript

    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘my/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));
        } catch(e) {        response.writeHead(404, {           
    ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’        });        response.end(‘request
    error’); }   pushItem.stream.on(‘error’, function(err){
        response.end(err.message); });   pushItem.stream.on(‘finish’,
    function(err){    console.log(‘finish’); });

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    try {
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync(‘my/css/bootstrap.min.css’,’binary’));
        } catch(e) {
           response.writeHead(404, {
               ‘Content-Type’: ‘text/plain’
           });
           response.end(‘request error’);
    }
     
    pushItem.stream.on(‘error’, function(err){
        response.end(err.message);
    });
     
    pushItem.stream.on(‘finish’, function(err){
       console.log(‘finish’);
    });

    上面的代码你或然会开掘众多和健康nodejs的httpserver不平等的事物,那就是stream,其实全部http二都以以stream为单位,那里的stream其实能够掌握成3个呼吁,越来越多的api能够参考:node-http2。

  5. 最终给我们推荐三个老外写的尤其服务http二的node
    server有兴趣的能够尝试一下。

HTTP/2 Server Push 是什么

当用户的浏览器和服务器在创制链接后,服务器主动将部分能源推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去请求这么些财富时就直接从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,提升了速率。举二个例证正是:

1经3个页面有一个财富文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器请求index.html的时候,服务器不仅重临index.html的内容,同时将index.css和index.js的剧情push给浏览器,当浏览器下次恳请那二多少个公文时就足以向来从缓存中读取了。

正如图所示:

图片 5

Apple-http2ServerPush

echo中的HTTP/2

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
)

func main() {
    e := echo.New()
    e.GET("/request", func(c echo.Context) error {
        req := c.Request()
        format := `
            <code>
                Protocol: %s<br>
                Host: %s<br>
                Remote Address: %s<br>
                Method: %s<br>
                Path: %s<br>
            </code>
        `
        return c.HTML(http.StatusOK, fmt.Sprintf(format, req.Proto, req.Host, req.RemoteAddr, req.Method, req.URL.Path))
    })
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.StartTLS(":1323", "cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}

浏览器输入:

结果:

Protocol: HTTP/2.0
Host: localhost:1323
Remote Address: [::1]:1905
Method: GET
Path: /request

假定出现错误:
http: TLS handshake error from [::1]:1735: tls: first record does not
look like a TLS handshake.

请检查是还是不是输入的是https

5,Server Push相关难点。

  1. 我们领略现在我们web的能源一般都以身处CDN上的,那么CDN的优势和server
    push的优势有啥不同呢,到底是哪些一点也十分的快啊?那个难题小编也间接在切磋,本文的有关demo都只好算做2个演示,具体的线上试行还在拓展中。
  2. 是因为HTTP二的局部新特色比如多路复用,server
    push等等都以基于同3个域名的,所以那只怕会对我们从前对于HTTP一的1对优化措施比如(财富拆分域名,合并等等)不分明适用。
  3. server
    push不仅能够看成拉取静态财富,咱们的cgi请求即ajax请求一样能够行使server
    push来发送数据。
  4. 最健全的结果是CDN域名辅助HTTP二,web server域名也还要协助HTTP二。

 

参考资料:

  1. HTTP二官方正规:
  2. 维基百科:
  3. 1 赞 1 收藏
    评论

图片 6

HTTP/二 Server Push 原理是怎么

要想明白server
push原理,首先要掌握一些定义。我们领略HTTP/二传输的格式并不像HTTP一使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧首要分为这二种档期的顺序:

  1. HEADEOdysseyS
    frame(请求重临头帧):这种帧首要指点的http请求头消息,和HTTP一的header类似。
  2. DATA frames(数据帧) :那种帧存放真正的数目content,用来传输。
  3. PUSH_PROMISE
    frame(推送帧):那种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来代表server
    push的帧,那种帧是完结server push的首要帧类型。
  4. RST_STREAM(撤销推送帧):那种帧表示请求关闭帧,轻松讲正是当client不想接受有个别能源依旧接受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
    frame一同使用时表示拒绝只怕关闭server push。

(PS:HTTP/二相关的帧其实包涵10种帧,正是因为尾部数据格式的改观,才为HTTP/2带来多数的风味,帧的引进不仅方便压缩数量,也有利数据的安全性和可信传输性。)

叩问了连带的帧类型,下边便是现实server push的达成进程了:

  1. 由多路复用大家可以知晓HTTP/第22中学对于同五个域名的伸手会选取一条tcp链接而用不一样的stream
    ID来区分各自的请求。
  2. 当client使用stream
    一请求index.html时,server不荒谬管理index.html的伸手,并得以查出index.html页面还将要会呈请index.css和index.js。
  3. server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
    frame给client告诉client笔者这边可以接纳stream 贰来推送index.js和stream
    三来推送index.css财富。
  4. server使用stream 1不荒谬的出殡和埋葬HEADEXC90S frame和DATA
    frames将index.html的剧情重返给client。
  5. client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得知stream 贰和stream
    3来选用推送能源。
  6. server获得index.css和index.js便会发送HEADE卡宴S frame和DATA
    frames将能源发送给client。
  7. client获得push的财富后会缓存起来当呼吁那一个资源时会从直接从从缓存中读取。

golang.org/x/net/http2

文书档案地址:

获取:
get golang.org/x/net/http2

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "html"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "golang.org/x/net/http2"
)

func main() {
    var srv http.Server
    http2.VerboseLogs = true
    srv.Addr = ":8080"
    // This enables http2 support
    http2.ConfigureServer(&srv, nil)

    http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
        fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hi tester %q\n", html.EscapeString(r.URL.Path))
        ShowRequestInfoHandler(w, r)
    })
    // Listen as https ssl server
    // NOTE: WITHOUT SSL IT WONT WORK!!
    log.Fatal(srv.ListenAndServeTLS("cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}
func ShowRequestInfoHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "text/plain")
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Method: %s\n", r.Method)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Protocol: %s\n", r.Proto)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Host: %s\n", r.Host)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "RemoteAddr: %s\n", r.RemoteAddr)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "RequestURI: %q\n", r.RequestURI)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "URL: %#v\n", r.URL)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Body.ContentLength: %d (-1 means unknown)\n", r.ContentLength)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "Close: %v (relevant for HTTP/1 only)\n", r.Close)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "TLS: %#v\n", r.TLS)
    fmt.Fprintf(w, "\nHeaders:\n")
    r.Header.Write(w)
}

浏览器输入:

结果:

Hi tester "/"
Method: GET
Protocol: HTTP/2.0
Host: localhost:8080
RemoteAddr: [::1]:2750
RequestURI: "/"
URL: &url.URL{Scheme:"", Opaque:"", User:(*url.Userinfo)(nil), Host:"", Path:"/", RawPath:"", ForceQuery:false, RawQuery:"", Fragment:""}
Body.ContentLength: 0 (-1 means unknown)
Close: false (relevant for HTTP/1 only)
TLS: &tls.ConnectionState{Version:0x303, HandshakeComplete:true, DidResume:false, CipherSuite:0xc02f, NegotiatedProtocol:"h2", NegotiatedProtocolIsMutual:true, ServerName:"localhost", PeerCertificates:[]*x509.Certificate(nil), VerifiedChains:[][]*x509.Certificate(nil), SignedCertificateTimestamps:[][]uint8(nil), OCSPResponse:[]uint8(nil), TLSUnique:[]uint8{0xa6, 0x3c, 0xfe, 0x93, 0x3c, 0x15, 0x4f, 0x74, 0xfc, 0x97, 0xca, 0x73}}

Headers:
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Alexatoolbar-Alx_ns_ph: AlexaToolbar/alx-4.0
Cookie: _ga=GA1.1.981224509.1509938615
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.94 Safari/537.36

Server Push 怎么用

Server Push

Server Push是什么

简短来讲便是当用户的浏览器和服务器在确立链接后,服务器主动将一些财富推送给浏览器并缓存起来,那样当浏览器接下去请求这一个财富时就一贯从缓存中读取,不会在从服务器上拉了,提高了速率。举三个事例正是:
设若2个页面有一个能源文件index.html,index.css,index.js,当浏览器请求index.html的时候,服务器不仅重返index.html的始末,同时将index.css和index.js的始末push给浏览器,当浏览器下次乞请那2几个文本时就能够直接从缓存中读取了。

Server Push原理是怎么

要想驾驭server
push原理,首先要精晓一些定义。大家清楚HTTP二传输的格式并不像HTTP一使用文本来传输,而是启用了二进制帧(Frames)格式来传输,和server
push相关的帧主要分为那二种档期的顺序:

HEADERubiconS
frame(请求再次来到头帧):那种帧重要引导的http请求头消息,和HTTP1的header类似。

DATA frames(数据帧) :那种帧存放真正的数额content,用来传输。
PUSH_PROMISE
frame(推送帧):那种帧是由server端发送给client的帧,用来代表server
push的帧,那种帧是兑现server push的首要帧类型。

RST_STREAM(打消推送帧):那种帧表示请求关闭帧,轻便讲正是当client不想接受有个别能源仍旧收受timeout时会向发送方发送此帧,和PUSH_PROMISE
frame一同利用时表示拒绝只怕关闭server push。

打听了连带的帧类型,上面正是现实server push的兑现进程了:
由多路复用大家能够清楚HTTP2中对此同3个域名的伸手会选拔一条tcp链接而用区别的stream
ID来分别各自的央求。
当client使用stream
一请求index.html时,server符合规律管理index.html的请求,并得以查出index.html页面还将要会呈请index.css和index.js。
server使用stream 1发送PUSH_PROMISE
frame给client告诉client小编这边能够使用stream 二来推送index.js和stream
三来推送index.css能源。
server使用stream 1通常的出殡HEADE奥迪Q7S frame和DATA
frames将index.html的剧情重返给client。
client接收到PUSH_PROMISE frame得知stream 贰和stream 三来收取推送财富。
server得到index.css和index.js便会发送HEADE奥德赛S frame和DATA
frames将财富发送给client。
client得到push的能源后会缓存起来当呼吁那个财富时会从第贰手从从缓存中读取。

使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量

查阅 HTTP/二 流量的两种办法

  • 在 Chrome 地址栏输入 chrome://net-internals/#http2,使用 Chrome
    自带的 HTTP/二 调节和测试工具;
    使用方便,但受限于 Chrome 浏览器,对于 Chrome 不帮忙的 h贰c(HTTP/2
    Cleartext,未有配置 TLS 的
    HTTP/二)协议不能。同时,那几个工具展现的消息通过了分析和筛选,不够完美。
  • 使用 Wireshark 调试 HTTP/2 流量;
    Wireshark 位于服务端和浏览器之间,充当的是中间人剧中人物,用它查看
    HTTP/二 over HTTPS
    流量时,必须持有网址私钥或许借助浏览器共享对称密钥,工夫解密 TLS
    流量,配置起来相比较费心。

nghttp二,是一个用 C 落成的 HTTP/2 库,支持h二c。它能够做为别的软件的一有的,为其提供 HTTP/二 相关作用(举例 curl 的
HTTP/贰 功用就是用的 nghttp2)。除了那几个之外,它还提供了多少个有效的 HTTP/二工具:

  • nghttp:HTTP/2 客户端;
  • nghttpd:HTTP/2 服务端;
  • nghttpx:HTTP/二 代理,提供 HTTP/壹、HTTP/2 等协商时期的转换;
  • h二load:HTTP/二 质量测试工具;

Golang1.8中的Server Push

代码main.go:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "io/ioutil"
    "net/http"
)

var image []byte

// preparing image
func init() {
    var err error
    image, err = ioutil.ReadFile("./image.png")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

// Send HTML and push image
func handlerHtml(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    pusher, ok := w.(http.Pusher)
    if ok {
        fmt.Println("Push /image")
        pusher.Push("/image", nil)
    }
    w.Header().Add("Content-Type", "text/html")
    fmt.Fprintf(w, `<html><body><img src="/image"></body></html>`)
}

// Send image as usual HTTP request
func handlerImage(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "image/png")
    w.Write(image)
}
func main() {
    http.HandleFunc("/", handlerHtml)
    http.HandleFunc("/image", handlerImage)
    fmt.Println("start http listening :18443")
    err := http.ListenAndServeTLS(":18443", "server.crt", "server.key", nil)
    fmt.Println(err)
}

浏览器输入:

能够动用插件HTTP/2 and SPDY indicator
chrome://net-internals/#http2

nghttp2 安装

先来用 brew 看一下有未有 nghttp 相关的库:

~ brew search nghttp
nghttp2

看来是有 nghttp二 的,再用 brew 看下必要安装哪些条件:

~ brew info nghttp2
nghttp2: stable 1.21.0 (bottled), HEAD
HTTP/2 C Library
https://nghttp2.org/
Not installed
From: https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew-core/blob/master/Formula/nghttp2.rb
==> Dependencies
Build: sphinx-doc ✘, pkg-config ✔, cunit ✘
Required: c-ares ✘, libev ✘, openssl ✔, libevent ✘, jansson ✘, boost ✘, spdylay ✘
Recommended: jemalloc ✘
==> Requirements
Optional: python3 ✔
==> Options
--with-examples
    Compile and install example programs
--with-python3
    Build python3 bindings
--without-docs
    Don't build man pages
--without-jemalloc
    Build without jemalloc support
--HEAD
    Install HEAD version

因而看来必要的依赖还挺多。

使用 brew 安装 nghttp2 :

brew install nghttp2

全体妥善后,nghttp二 提供的多少个工具就能够直接用了。

echo框架中的Server Push

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
  <title>HTTP/2 Server Push</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="/app.css">
  <script src="/app.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
  <img class="echo" src="/echo.png">
  <h2>The following static files are served via HTTP/2 server push</h2>
  <ul>
    <li><code>/app.css</code></li>
    <li><code>/app.js</code></li>
    <li><code>/echo.png</code></li>
  </ul>
</body>
</html>

main.go

package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/labstack/echo"
)

func main() {
    e := echo.New()
    e.Static("/", "static")
    e.GET("/", func(c echo.Context) (err error) {
        pusher, ok := c.Response().Writer.(http.Pusher)
        if ok {
            if err = pusher.Push("/app.css", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
            if err = pusher.Push("/app.js", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
            if err = pusher.Push("/echo.png", nil); err != nil {
                return
            }
        }
        return c.File("index.html")
    })
    e.Logger.Fatal(e.StartTLS(":1323", "cert.pem", "key.pem"))
}

浏览器输入:

参考:

图片 7

nghttp

nghttp 做为贰个职能1体化的 HTTP/贰 客户端,相当适合用来查看和调节和测试 HTTP/2流量。它帮衬的参数许多,通过合法文书档案只怕 nghttp -h
都能查看。最常用多少个参数如下:

  • -v, –verbose,输出完整的 debug 音信;
  • -n, –null-out,吐弃下载的数量;
  • -a, –get-assets,下载 html 中的 css、js、image 等外链能源;
  • -H, –header = < HEADE冠道 >,加多请求尾部字段,如 -H’:method:
    PUT’;
  • -u, –upgrade,使用 HTTP 的 Upgrade 机制来合计 HTTP/2 协议,用于
    h贰c,详见上面的例证;

以下是选择 nghttp 访问
https://h2o.examp1e.net
的结果。从调节和测试消息中能够清晰看出 h二c 协商以及 Server Push 的方方面面经过:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net'
[  0.201] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  1.180] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  1.180] send HEADERS frame <length=39, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):16777216]
[  1.373] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) etag: "55542026-169d5"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=2) content-length: 92629
[  1.373] recv HEADERS frame <length=126, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.373] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=4)
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) :status: 200
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) etag: "55542026-1388"
[  1.373] recv (stream_id=4) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=4) content-length: 5000
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=4>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /search/oktavia-english-search.js
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=6)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-type: application/javascript
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) last-modified: Thu, 14 May 2015 04:10:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) etag: "55542026-34dd6"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=6) content-length: 216534
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=31, flags=0x04, stream_id=6>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/style.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=8)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) etag: "57e0c8aa-1586"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=8) content-length: 5510
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=58, flags=0x04, stream_id=8>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: h2o.examp1e.net
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /assets/searchstyle.css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  1.374] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=10)
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-type: text/css
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) last-modified: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 05:27:06 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) etag: "57e0c8aa-8dd"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) x-http2-push: pushed
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=10) content-length: 2269
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=27, flags=0x04, stream_id=10>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) server: h2o/2.2.0-beta2
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:30:29 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/jquery-1.9.1.min.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-jquery-ui.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </search/oktavia-english-search.js>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/style.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) link: </assets/searchstyle.css>; rel=preload
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) cache-control: no-cache
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/html
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) last-modified: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 06:55:14 GMT
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) etag: "58e494d2-1665"
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) accept-ranges: bytes
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) set-cookie: h2o_casper=AmgAAAAAAAAAAAAYxfEYAAABSA; Path=/; Expires=Tue, 01 Jan 2030 00:00:00 GMT; Secure
[  1.374] recv (stream_id=13) content-length: 5733
[  1.374] recv HEADERS frame <length=304, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  1.375] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  1.566] recv DATA frame <length=16137, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=5000, flags=0x01, stream_id=4>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.567] recv DATA frame <length=4915, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=8>
[  1.766] recv DATA frame <length=2269, flags=0x01, stream_id=10>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.766] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33120)
[  1.767] recv DATA frame <length=9065, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  1.970] recv DATA frame <length=2681, flags=0x01, stream_id=8>
          ; END_STREAM
[  1.971] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33855)
[  1.971] recv DATA frame <length=10072, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.172] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.173] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  2.173] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.577] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.578] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.579] recv DATA frame <length=12762, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  2.777] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  2.777] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33241)
[  2.778] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.177] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.177] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.378] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.579] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  3.580] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
          (window_size_increment=33984)
[  3.583] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  3.779] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.186] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.395] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.396] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33993)
[  4.602] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  4.602] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=33975)
[  4.808] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  4.809] recv DATA frame <length=6379, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  5.010] recv DATA frame <length=3536, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.420] recv DATA frame <length=5667, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.628] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  5.842] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=33281)
[  6.057] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.273] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.490] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] recv DATA frame <length=4248, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.706] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34002)
[  6.924] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.141] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] recv DATA frame <length=8505, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.361] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34020)
[  7.574] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.574] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34029)
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.787] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  7.998] recv DATA frame <length=7086, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] recv DATA frame <length=9924, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.210] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
          (window_size_increment=34011)
[  8.425] recv DATA frame <length=11343, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=2829, flags=0x00, stream_id=6>
[  8.426] recv DATA frame <length=4053, flags=0x01, stream_id=6>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.631] recv DATA frame <length=4443, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  8.633] recv DATA frame <length=1290, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  8.633] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=10, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

自然,我们也足以行使 grep 寻找出来 server push 的连带 stream:

nghttp -nv 'https://h2o.examp1e.net' | grep 'PUSH_PROMISE'
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=59, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=33, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=35, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=24, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
[  1.582] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=28, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>

使用 NodeJS 搭建 HTTP/2 服务器

在大前端的时期背景下,客户端支付不会点 JavaScript
都快混不下去了,作者前段日子在自家司前端轮岗了两周,再加上在此之前也写过
ReactNative,但如故感觉前端变化之快领人感叹,革命尚未终结,同志仍需努力啊。

咱俩直接上代码:

var http2 = require('http2');// http2
var url=require('url'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/url
var fs=require('fs'); // https://www.npmjs.com/package/fs
var mine=require('mine');
var path=require('path'); // 路径

var server = http2.createServer({
  key: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.key'),
  cert: fs.readFileSync('./localhost.crt')
}, function(request, response) {

    // var pathname = url.parse(request.url).pathname;
    var realPath = './push.json' ;//path.join(pathname,"push.json");    //这里设置自己的文件路径,这是该次response返回的内容;

    var pushArray = [];
    var ext = path.extname(realPath);
    ext = ext ? ext.slice(1) : 'unknown';
    var contentType = mine[ext] || "text/plain";

    if (fs.existsSync(realPath)) {

        console.log('success')
        response.writeHead(200, {
            'Content-Type': contentType
        });

        response.write(fs.readFileSync(realPath,'binary'));

        // 注意 push 路径必须是绝对路径,这是该次 server push 返回的内容
        var pushItem = response.push('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json', {
                response: {
                  'content-type': contentType
                }    
        });
        pushItem.end(fs.readFileSync('/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json','binary'),()=>{
          console.log('newpush end')
        });

        response.end();

    } else {
      response.writeHead(404, {
          'Content-Type': 'text/plain'
      });

      response.write("This request URL " + realPath + " was not found on this server.");
      response.end();
    }

});

server.listen(3000, function() {
  console.log('listen on 3000');
});

此地须求留意几点:

  • 创办http2的nodejs服务必须时依照https的,因为后天主流的浏览器都要协助SSL/TLS的http二,证书和私钥能够团结通过OPENSSL生成。
  • node http二的相关api和健康的node httpserver一样,能够直接使用。

使用 nghttp 测试一下我们的代码有未有进行 server push:

~ nghttp -nv 'https://localhost:3000/'
[  0.007] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  0.029] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  0.029] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7>
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9>
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11>
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.029] send HEADERS frame <length=38, flags=0x25, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
          :method: GET
          :path: /
          :scheme: https
          :authority: localhost:3000
          accept: */*
          accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
          user-agent: nghttp2/1.21.1
[  0.043] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0>
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/plain
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.049] recv HEADERS frame <length=34, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
[  0.049] recv DATA frame <length=35, flags=0x00, stream_id=13>
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  0.049] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: localhost:3000
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
[  0.050] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=56, flags=0x04, stream_id=13>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=13>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  0.050] recv (stream_id=2) date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:34:46 GMT
[  0.050] recv HEADERS frame <length=2, flags=0x04, stream_id=2>
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First push response header
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=21, flags=0x00, stream_id=2>
[  0.050] recv DATA frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=2>
          ; END_STREAM
[  0.050] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0>
          (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

看到了 PUSH_PROMISE 的帧,表达举行了 server push。

如出一辙也足以动用chrome查看 server push,如下图所示:

图片 8

chrome 查看 http2 server push

服务端介绍大旨竣事。上面咱们来介绍部分 iOS 客户端对 Server Push 的选用。

iOS 使用 HTTP/2 Server Push

Apple 在那上头做的很好,基本落到实处了客户端无感调用http/二 server
push。但是小编查阅了稍稍资料,现在只有iOS 十 帮助 http/二。

直接上代码吧:

#import "ViewController.h"

@interface ViewController ()<NSURLSessionDelegate>

@property(nonatomic,strong)NSURLSession *session;

@end

@implementation ViewController

- (void)viewDidLoad
{
    [super viewDidLoad];
    // Do any additional setup after loading the view, typically from a nib.

}
#pragma mark - Touch
- (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet<UITouch *> *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event
{
    [self urlSession];
}
#pragma mark - 发送请求
- (void)urlSession
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000"];

    //发送HTTPS请求是需要对网络会话设置代理的
    _session = [NSURLSession sessionWithConfiguration:[NSURLSessionConfiguration defaultSessionConfiguration] delegate:self delegateQueue:[NSOperationQueue mainQueue]];

    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
        // 收到该次请求后,立即请求下次的内容
        [self urlSessionPush];

    }];

    [dataTask resume];
}

- (void)urlSessionPush
{
    NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json"];
    NSURLSessionDataTask *dataTask = [_session dataTaskWithURL:url completionHandler:^(NSData * _Nullable data, NSURLResponse * _Nullable response, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",[[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]);
    }];
    [dataTask resume];
}

#pragma mark - URLSession Delegate
- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session didReceiveChallenge:(NSURLAuthenticationChallenge *)challenge completionHandler:(void (^)(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeDisposition, NSURLCredential * _Nullable))completionHandler
{
    // 这里还要设置下 plist 中设置 ATS
    if (![challenge.protectionSpace.authenticationMethod isEqualToString:@"NSURLAuthenticationMethodServerTrust"])
    {
        return;
    }
    NSURLCredential *credential = [[NSURLCredential alloc] initWithTrust:challenge.protectionSpace.serverTrust];
    completionHandler(NSURLSessionAuthChallengeUseCredential,credential);
}


- (void)URLSession:(NSURLSession *)session task:(NSURLSessionTask *)task didFinishCollectingMetrics:(NSURLSessionTaskMetrics *)metrics
{
    NSArray *fetchTypes = @[ @"Unknown", @"Network Load", @"Server Push", @"Local Cache"];

    for(NSURLSessionTaskTransactionMetrics *transactionMetrics in [metrics transactionMetrics])
    {

        NSLog(@"protocol[%@] reuse[%d] fetch:%@ - %@", [transactionMetrics networkProtocolName], [transactionMetrics isReusedConnection], fetchTypes[[transactionMetrics resourceFetchType]], [[transactionMetrics request] URL]);

        if([transactionMetrics resourceFetchType] == NSURLSessionTaskMetricsResourceFetchTypeServerPush)
        {
            NSLog(@"Asset was server pushed");
        }
    }
}

- (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning
{
    [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];
    // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
}

@end

分级看下服务端和客户端的Log:
客户端:

Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[0] fetch:Network Load - https://localhost:3000/
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":" http2.0 server is ok"}
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] protocol[h2] reuse[1] fetch:Server Push - https://localhost:3000/Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer/newpush.json
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] Asset was server pushed
Http2ServerPush[2525:274943] {"message":"newPush"}

服务端:

http2-nodeServer npm start

> http2-nodeServer@1.0.0 start /Users/f.li/Desktop/http2-nodeServer
> node index.js

listen on 3000
success
newpush end

总的来讲确实是客户端发出了两遍呼吁,可是服务端只响应了1次(该次响应+ server
push)

正文相关Demo

  • Github:lijianfeigeek

参考文献

  • HTTP2 Server Push的研究 |
    AlloyTeam
  • 使用 nghttp2 调试 HTTP/2 流量 | JerryQu
    的小站
  • objective c – HTTP/2 Server Push in iOS 10 – Stack
    Overflow
  • 使用NSURLSession或者AFN发送HTTPS请求 –
    简书

Post Author: admin

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